Sarah Farmer, M.A., Certified Trauma Integration Practitioner

What Is Trauma?

Individual trauma results from an event, series of events, or set of circumstances that is experienced by an individual as physically or emotionally harmful or life threatening and that has lasting adverse effects on the individual’s functioning and mental, physical, social, emotional, or spiritual well-being.

The effects of trauma include adverse physical, social, emotional, or spiritual consequences.

Trauma can:

  • Cause short and long-term effects.

  • Affect coping responses, relationships, or developmental tasks.

  • Impact physiological responses, well-being, social relationships, and/or spiritual beliefs.


Common trauma responses include:

  • Blowing up when being corrected

  • Fighting when criticized or teased

  • Resisting transitions or change

  • Very protective of personal space

  • Reckless or self-destructive behavior

  • Frequently seeking attention

  • Reverting to younger behaviors

  • Panic attacks

  • Risky behaviors

  • Nightmares or sleeping problems

  • Sensitive to noise or to being touched

  • Fear of being separated from family

  • Difficulty trusting others

  • Feeling very sad, angry, afraid; emotional swings


  • Unexplained medical problems

  • Psychological

  • Confusing what is safe and what is dangerous

  • Trouble focusing or concentrating

  • Difficulty imagining

  • Always expecting something bad to happen

  • Not remembering periods of your life

  • Feeling emotionally numb

  • Lack of concentration; irritability

  • Excessive watchfulness, anxiety, anger, shame, or sadness about the future

  • Hopelessness

  • Substance abuse

  • Dissociation

But healing IS POSSIBLE!